Affirmations: of the modern is now the official journal of the AMSN

We’re making it official!

Affirmations: of the modern is now the official journal of the AMSN!

An open-access journal, Affirmations: of the modern aims to stir up modernist studies by drawing attention to that which has been, and remains, peripheral, overlooked, or unseen. Embracing our Antipodean vantage point, the journal seeks to build upon recent developments in the field that have troubled modernism’s too-settled histories and its centre-periphery relations. Whether through focusing on previously overlooked works or forms of modernist literature, art, and culture; examining the less-discussed sites, iterations, and experiences of modernity; or taking innovative approaches to modernism’s more well-known figures, texts, and themes, Affirmations seeks scholarship that challenges us to look at the field from new theoretical, critical, disciplinary, and interdisciplinary perspectives. While international in scope and contribution, Affirmations has a particular commitment to fostering modernist scholarship related to the Asia-Pacific region, and to promoting work by both established and emerging scholars in the region.

For more on the focus and scope of the journal, as well as how to submit your work, see Affirmations: of the modern.

CFP for special issue of the Modernist Review: Black Lives Matter and Modernist Studies

Content warning: police brutality

Modernist studies has been slow to respond to urgent calls for reform within white-dominated higher education: to decolonise, to diversify, to include. 2020 has witnessed the murders of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, the shooting of Jacob Blake and so many more, which have sparked a global sense of urgency in the fight against racial injustice. Modernist studies must acknowledge and examine white modernism’s difficult history of racism, and align itself with the Black Lives Matter movement and active anti-racism work within higher education. These imperatives are not new: students, educators and activists have been calling for decolonisation, diversification and inclusion in the academy for decades. 

We at BAMS recognise that more needs to be done to counter the whiteness of academia and of modernism studies. With this in mind, we at the Modernist Review would like to share this Call for Papers for a special issue on Black modernist studies. The concerns of this CfP are not confined to one month of TMR; this issue is part of a larger movement within modernist studies and higher education. We at TMR recognise the institutional racism embedded within academia that we, the editors, have benefitted from. As set out in BAMS’ recent statement on Black Lives Matter, we are committed to doing more: compiling resources lists, addressing how TMR operates, listening to and acting on ways to ensure that we have structural inclusivity. We stand with our American friends striking on the 8th and 9th of September as part of #Scholarstrike. We hear the #BlackintheIvory stories of institutional racism in the academy. We recognise that we need to do more.

White modernism has a history of colonial exploitation, racism and cultural appropriation. The 2015-2019 AHRC funded project Black Artists and Modernism highlighted the number of Black voices, artworks and ‘hidden histories’ that exist in archives, but have been excluded from modernism’s narratives. This special issue on Black modernist studies aims to further explore and highlight the work of Black writers, artists, thinkers and scholars in the making of modernism, and examine the state of modernist studies and the way modernism is read and taught today. We welcome articles, reviews, creative responses, personal reflections and more on topics including but not limited to: 

  • Black modernist writers and artists
  • Black Lives Matter, modernism and research practices
  • Black Lives Matter in the (modernist) classroom
  • Postcolonial theory in/and modernist studies
  • Global modernisms
  • Black modernist critics and scholars
  • Diversity and inclusivity in modernist studies and higher education
  • Modernist canons and structures of oppression
  • The Harlem Renaissance
  • Modernisms in/and the Global South
  • Intersections of race with class, gender, and nationality
  • Complaint and protest in modernist studies
  • Black Lives Matter and the imperative to decolonise modernist studies

Articles should be around 1,000 words in length, though we are happy to negotiate and discuss word counts, particularly in relation to creative responses. Our full submission guidelines can be found here. Please send an abstract of no more than 200 words to, along with a short bio, by 23 September 2020. On acceptance of an abstract, the deadline for submissions will be 21 October 2020

We particularly extend this CfP to Black and BAME members of our community, and encourage educators and supervisors to pass this to their Black and BAME students.

For full information: Modernist Review CFP

Update from AMSN Executive

Dear Friends of the AMSN,

We hope that this message finds you all safe and well in these challenging times, and express our sympathies and solidarity to all of you who are being adversely affected by the impacts that COVID is having on our daily lives and our sector.

As we all know, many wonderful research events have been cancelled or postponed this year. We wanted to touch base with you all to update you on future AMSN events.

For some time the AMSN had been in the process of planning a symposium on the topic of Modernism and Stillness to be held at the Writing and Society Research Centre (Western Sydney University) in December 2020. Unfortunately, the convenors, Lorraine Sim (Western Sydney University) and Alix Beeston (Cardiff University), have had to postpone this event due to Covid. At this stage, we are hoping to reschedule for mid-2021, and will keep you posted of developments.

We are very excited to confirm that the next major AMSN conference will be hosted by the University of Auckland in late 2022! Our deep thanks to Erin Carlston (University of Auckland) and her colleagues in New Zealand for agreeing to host this event. We are thrilled to have our first conference in New Zealand and hope to see many of you there. Further details about the conference theme and a CFP will be forthcoming in 2021.

In the meantime, please do let us know if you plan to host any modernist studies events (virtual or face-to-face), or if you have any exciting news that you would like to share with the wider community (recent book publications, grant opportunities, and the like). You can stay up-to-date with current and future events and happenings via our Facebook and Twitter feeds, the AMSN website, and the AMSN Email List (to sign up for this, click here or see the instructions in the post below).

Fingers crossed we will see some of you at events in the not-too-distant future. Until then, stay safe.

Best wishes, from the AMSN Executive.

Pandemic, Crisis, and Modern Studies: The Intersection of Your Research with the Pandemic/Crisis – A Twitter Conference

Countervoices, Centre for Modern Studies, University of York

12 June 2020 | Twitter

Over the past few months, the spread of Covid-19 has profoundly impacted the lives of people around the globe. Whether politically, through the ever-shifting government policies, culturally, by virtual access to cultural artefacts, or socially, through individual isolation, the rapid spread of the pandemic has changed how one lives in the world. Undoubtedly severe as the consequences of the virus are, it boosts new insights into human relation(ship)s, communities, and environment, with imaginative responses such as singing on balconies, and considerable drops in air pollution. For individuals, communication has become confined to the virtual space, forcing us to find original forms of expression.

This conference attempts to initiate a robust and meaningful discussion on how the pandemic or crisis shapes our past, present, and future. We invite discussions about the pandemic as a global crisis from passionate and creative intellectuals in different disciplines of modern studies (from 1830 to present). Featuring an opportune interdisciplinary response to the contemporary changes and new experiences brought about by the crisis, this conference will spark new debates over ontological issues, shed new light upon research in humanities and sciences, and engage and inspire a broad range of audiences in and beyond this country.

The conference welcomes submissions of abstracts for twitter-papers consisting of 10-15 tweets (with pictures/slides) about the way your studies intersect with the pandemic or crisis. Topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Physical and mental health: vulnerability, fragility, illness, health, care, death, and resilience, therapy, and recovery.
  • Cognition and memory: trauma, recollection, history, erasure, monument, and memorials.
  • Space: architecture, geography, regions, nations, transnation, and globe.
  • Identities, groups and agents: identities in relation to crisis (victim, survivor, volunteer, helper, expert, hero, scapegoat, whistleblower, etc.), groups and authorities in operation, effects on particular groups in the population (gender, race, class and human rights), creation of new groups and new identities.
  • Changes and reactions: changes to habits (shopping, behaviour, social norms), cognition, human relationships, cities, businesses, economies, and policies that initiate (or do not initiate) such changes.
  • Communication and language: rumours, fake news, instructions, slogans, hashtags, and new words.
  • Apocalyptic/post-apocalyptic, utopian/dystopian visions.
  • Material objects and metaphors: necessities (food, toilet roll), tools of self-preservation (masks, hand-sanitizer, vaccines, ventilators, and weapons).
  • Animals and the environment: non-human, ecology, environment, and post-human.
  • Representation in literature, music, art, cinema, documents, archive, or records.

Please send your abstract (200 words), a short bio (50 words), and your twitter account (@XXXX) to by 15 May 2020. Participants will be invited to present their papers (thread of tweets) on 12 June using the hashtag #Cmodspan2020 and tagging the Countervoices (@cmodspgforum1) and CModS (@cmods1) twitter accounts according to the conference programme and handbook, which will be updated at the end of May. We will host the conference and retweet your tweet-papers in a single thread, under the title of the conference. For those who don’t have a twitter account, we can help you tweet your discussion. The best papers presented in this conference will receive Amazon vouchers worth up to £50. We are grateful to the Centre for Modern Studies for making it possible for us to offer these awards.

Keynote Speakers: Dr. Fay Bound Alberti (York) & Dr. Beryl Pong (Sheffield)

Find us on Twitter , Facebook or our website.

Call for Contributors: Print Plus Cluster for Modernism/modernity on Modernist Periodical Studies and the Transnational Turn

We are soliciting short contributions (ca. 3,000 words) on the topic of ‘Transnational Modernist Periodical Networks’, for a prospective cluster on Modernism/modernity’s Print Plus platform. We aim to bring together contributions from specialists working on a variety of national and regional modernisms (North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa). The cluster will build on probing recent discussions surrounding the idea of Global Modernism on the platform (e.g. Alys Moody and Stephen J. Ross’s ‘On Global Modernism and Academic Precarity’, and Claire Barber-Stetson’s ‘Modern Insecurities, or, Living on the Edge’), in order to assess the implications the transnational paradigm holds for modernist periodical studies.

In light of the publication in 2016 of Eric Bulson’s Little Magazine, World Form and the forthcoming Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Global Modernist Magazines series, edited by Bulson, Andrew Thacker, and María del Pilar Blanco, we are seeking lively contributions that push at the boundaries of the emergent field of transnational modernist periodical studies.

Possible topics may include:

  • The relationship between transnationalism and the periodical form.
  • The relationship between immigration, exile and diaspora and the emergence of transnational periodical networks.
  • To what extent does the analysis of transnational periodical networks challenge the conceptualisation of the centres and peripheries of modernism?
  • What are the dominant absences that we encounter in studying these networks?
  • How do we negotiate the issue of the local in discussions of the transnational?
  • What are the creative, political, artistic tensions between localism and globalism in transnational periodical networks?
  • What issues of funding, distribution, and readership can we identify by looking at modernist periodicals transnationally?
  • What are the limits of the transnational paradigm? How transnational/global were these periodical networks in actuality?
  • To what extent do modernist magazines and their editors function as agents in cultural diplomacy (state-sponsored and otherwise)?
  • How well does translation work in these magazines act as a cultural and political mediator
  • How does re-evaluating transnational periodical networks challenge existing understandings of individual and group reception histories?
  • How does the periodical as object of study make visible transnational artistic/literary networks, and what are the connections between these transnational networks and issues of translation and multilingualism in modernist magazines?
  • How does transnational periodical studies open up new modes of collaborative work?

Please send a 300-word abstract alongside short biographical information to,, and, by 1 June 2020. Selected contributors will be invited to submit essays, after which the entire cluster will be sent to Modernism/modernity for peer review. We aim to submit the cluster in the fall of 2020.

‘Katherine Mansfield on the French Riviera’ Symposium CFP

An international symposium organised by the Katherine Mansfield Society, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Katherine Mansfield Menton Fellowship. Hosted by the Town Hall of Menton, and supported by the Katherine Mansfield Menton Fellowship.

24-25 September 2020 | Menton, France

The New Zealand short story writer Katherine Mansfield (1888–1923) spent all her adult life in Europe, of which approximately three years in total were spent in France, where she later died. For much of this time she was on the French Riviera, firstly in Bandol and subsequently in Menton during the spring of 1920, and then staying at the Villa Isola Bella from September 1920 to May 1921.

Both Bandol and Menton proved fertile ground for Mansfield’s creativity. During two sojourns in Bandol (1916 and 1918), she completed ‘The Aloe’ and wrote ‘Je ne parle pas français’, ‘Sun and Moon’, and ‘Bliss’. The time she spent at the Villa Isola Bella in Menton resulted in ‘The Singing Lesson’, ‘The Young Girl’, ‘The Stranger’, ‘Miss Brill’, ‘Poison’, ‘The Lady’s Maid’, ‘The Daughters of the Late Colonel’, and ‘Life of Ma Parker’.

Mansfield’s life in the south of France also engendered comments in her notebooks and diaries, as well as in her letters. For example, near the end of a letter to her husband, John Middleton Murry, written from Menton, she wrote, ‘You will find ISOLA BELLA in poker work on my heart’. Domestic issues, friendships, visitors from England, descriptions of the Mediterranean, all feature in her personal writing. On her first visit to Menton, staying with her cousin Connie Beauchamp, she wrote to Murry: ‘Oh, could I bring the flowers, the air the whole heavenly climate as well: this darling little town, these mountains – It is simply a small jewel’. In January 1922, high up in the snowy Swiss Alps, she wrote in her new diary: ‘I love, I long for the fertile earth. How I have longed for the S. of France this year!’

In the fifty years since 1970, the Katherine Mansfield Menton Fellowship has celebrated the connection between New Zealand’s most iconic writer and the town of Menton, allowing a New Zealand writer to live and write for three months or more in the town which Mansfield loved so much. Previous recipients include C. K. Stead, Margaret Scott, Paula Morris, Carl Nixon, Kate Camp, Anna Jackson, Mandy Hager, Greg McGee, Justin Paton, Chris Price, Ken Duncum, Damien Wilkins, Jenny Pattrick, Stuart Hoar, Dame Fiona Kidman, Ian Wedde and other prestigious writers such as Bill Manhire, Janet Frame, Witi Ihimaera, Elizabeth Knox, Lloyd Jones, Roger Hall, Marilyn Duckworth, Michael King and Allen Curnow.

This two-day symposium will celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Fellowship in 2020.

Suggested topics for papers might include (but are not limited to):

  • The influence of the south of France on Mansfield
  • Mansfield, travel and France
  • Mansfield’s French legacy
  • The French reception of Mansfield’s works
  • Translating Mansfield
  • France and the French as sources for Mansfield’s imagination
  • Teaching and studying Mansfield in France today
  • The influence of French literature on Mansfield
  • Analysis of any of the stories Mansfield wrote in the south of France
  • The legacy of Mansfield in New Zealand writing today.

NB: All other topics relating to Mansfield will be considered.

Abstracts of 200 words, together with a 50-word bio-sketch, should be sent to the conference organiser, Dr Gerri Kimber (University of Northampton, UK), at

Submission deadline: 31 March 2020

The Symposium will feature a keynote panel of prestigious New Zealand authors, all former Mansfield Menton Fellows.

Full details: Menton 2020

Call for Essays: Katherine Mansfield Studies

Call for Essays for vol. 13 of Katherine Mansfield Studies, the yearbook of the Katherine Mansfield Society, published by Edinburgh University Press, together with details of the associated essay prize for 2020. This year’s theme is Katherine Mansfield and Children, in all its possible contexts.

Katherine Mansfield and Children

Editors: Gerri Kimber, University of Northampton, UK; Todd Martin, Huntington University, USA

Virginia Woolf once remarked that Katherine Mansfield had ‘a kind of childlikeness somewhere which has been much disfigured, but still exists’. This ‘childlikeness’ is indeed a facet of Mansfield’s personality which permeates every aspect of her personal and creative life. It is present in her mature fiction, where some of her most well-known and accomplished stories, such as ‘Prelude’ and ‘At the Bay’, have children as protagonists; it is present in her early poetry, which includes a collection of poems for children intended for publication; it is also present in her juvenilia, where many of the stories she wrote from an early age for school magazines and other publications, feature children. As Tracy Miao notes of her mature fiction, ‘in Mansfield’s modelling of her child artists […] there is more than a simple “childlikeness” […] but a serious thought process on art and the artist’.

Even as an adult, Mansfield’s love of the miniature, her delight in children in general, her fascination with dolls, all feature in her personal writing. Her relationship with John Middleton Murry was characterised by their mutual descriptions of themselves as little children fighting against a corrupt world. Alluding to their innocence, Mansfield once wrote to Murry: ‘My grown up self sees us like two little children who have been turned out into the garden’. Years later, speaking of Murry’s writing, she notes, ‘Take care of yourself – my beloved child with all these wild men about throwing stones and striking’.

Essays which address any aspect of the concept of Mansfield and children will be considered for this volume. Subjects might include (but are not limited to):

• Children in Mansfield’s fiction
• Children in Mansfield’s poetry
• Mansfield’s juvenilia – poetry and /or prose
• Mansfield’s early years
• The ‘childlike’ relationship between Mansfield and Murry
• Mansfield’s pregnancies
• Mansfield’s love of the miniature
• Mansfield and dolls
• The childlike in Mansfield’s personal writing
• Mansfield’s ‘innocent eye’ (John Ruskin)

Please email submissions of c.6000 words, including endnotes, formatted in Word and in MHRA style*, 12 pt. Times New Roman, double line-spaced, with a 100-word abstract + 5 keywords & 50-word biography, to the editorial team at


Style Guide: Katherine Mansfield Society

We also welcome creative submissions of poetry, short stories, and creative essays on the general theme of Katherine Mansfield. Please send submissions for consideration, accompanied by a brief (50 words) biography, to

Deadline for Submissions: 31 August 2020

CRiSiS: Conference of the European Network for Avant-Garde and Modernism Studies

7th biennial conference of the European Network for Avant-Garde and Modernism Studies

17-19 September 2020 | University of Leuven, Belgium

Notions of crisis have long charged the study of the European avant-garde and modernism. Throughout their history, avant-gardists and modernists have faced crises, be they economic or political, scientific or technological, aesthetic or philosophical, collective or individual, local or global, short or perennial. Modernists and avant-gardists have in turn continually stood accused of instigating crises, whether artistic or cultural, sensorial or conceptual, incidental or intentional, far-reaching or negligible, representational or other. The very concepts of ‘avant-garde’ and ‘modernism’ are time and again subject—or subjected—to conceptual crises, leaving modernism and avant-garde studies as a field on the perpetual brink of a self-effacing theoretical crisis.

The 7th biennial conference of the EAM intends to tackle the ways in which the avant-garde and modernism in Europe relate to crisi/es. Although we welcome panel, roundtable and paper proposals on any aspect of this relationship, we are particularly interested in new research on three topics.

First, we want to explore the theoretical complexity of the notion of crisis. For what is a crisis, really? The term is defined very loosely at times in modernism and avant-garde studies, and a quick survey illustrates that we seldom talk about crises of the same scale, import or impact. By clarifying what exactly counts as a crisis, surely we can gain a better understanding of the European avant-gardes and modernism. So what precisely do we mean by ‘crisis’? Is crisis above all a narrative device? Is there ever no crisis? Are there types of crisis, artistic or otherwise, that we have thus far neglected in our study of the avant-garde or modernism? And what (other) view(s) of crisis do avant-gardists and modernists themselves project?

Second, we are interested in proposals that touch upon the crises-laden historical trajectory of the avant-gardes and modernism. For while we often claim that a notion of crisis is key to a proper understanding of (late) modernity, the European avant-gardes and modernists faced different historical crises throughout their development. To what extent do all these crises, which span several centuries, share common denominators? What role do national and regional differences play over time? Does the project of the avant-garde and modernism, along with their critique of crisis, change fundamentally over time or not? Proposals touching upon a historical case study or submissions comparing several historical cases from different times or regions in Europe are therefore particularly welcome.

Third and finally, we wholeheartedly encourage proposals that look at the practical side of things, across all areas of avant-garde and modernist activity: art, literature, music, architecture, film, artistic and social movements, lifestyle, television, fashion, drama, performance, activism, curatorial practice, design and technology. How do European avant-gardists and modernists give aesthetic shape to crises? What representational strategies and tactics do they use in their practices? What affective (and other) experiences of crisis does their work allow for? What crises do their experimental practices yield—in fact, do the avant-gardes and modernism create types or modes of crisis of their own?

The official languages of this conference are English, French and German. You may submit a proposal as a panel chair, as an individual or as a roundtable chair.

1. You may propose to be the chair of a panel. A panel consists of three or four speakers. One of the speakers is the chair who makes the submission and supplies the details and proposals of all of the proposed participants. You may also submit a double or triple panel. Panels should not consist only of doctoral students and panels composed of participants from a single department at a single institution are less likely to be accepted.

2. You may submit an individual proposal without specifying a panel and the organisers will assign your paper to a panel if accepted.

3. You may propose to be the chair of a roundtable. Roundtables consist of a maximum of 6 participants who each write brief “position papers” (4 pages) that are read and circulated before the conference. During the roundtable, participants briefly present position statements, after which a discussion takes place moderated by the chair. Roundtables can consist only of doctoral students yet roundtables composed of participants from a single department at a single institution are also less likely to be accepted.

Roundtable proposals (deadline 1 Jan 2020) should include:

1. Title of the roundtable and language (English, French, German – one only)

2. A 500-word summary of the roundtable’s topic and rationale.

3. The chair’s name, a one-page curriculum vitae, and contact information (address and email).

4. Name, postal address and email contact of at least 5 (maximum 6) participants in the roundtable.

5. Short biography of individual participants

Panel proposals (deadline 1 Feb 2020) should include:

1. Title of the panel and language of the panel (English, French, German – one only)

2. Name, address and email contact of the chair

3. A summary of the panel topic (300 words)

4. A summary of each individual contribution (300 words)

5. Name, postal address and email contact of individual contributors

6. Short biography of individual contributors

Individual proposals (deadline 1 Feb 2020) should include:

1. Title of the paper and language of the paper (English, French, or German)

2. Name, address and email of contributor

3. A summary of the contribution (300 words)

4. Short biography of the contributor

Please submit your proposals in Word format only to Acceptance will be notified via email by the end of May. A detailed conference programme will be available on the EAM website before summer. With any questions, please always make sure to check this page first, as it will be updated in due course.

Full information: CRiSiS Conference

Reading Modernism in the Sixth Extinction: Call for papers for prospective Modernism/modernity Print Plus cluster

Reading Modernism in the Sixth Extinction

Prospective Modernism/modernity Print Plus cluster

Edited by Caroline Hovanec (Tampa) and Rachel Murray (Loughborough)

Abstracts due by 31 January, 2020

Call for Papers

We are living through the sixth mass extinction – a period of geological history in which species are dying out at up to 1000 times the normal rate. A 2019 UN report warned that as many as one million plant and animal species are threatened with extinction, and recent studies have reported staggering declines in biodiversity over the past fifty years. The causes are anthropogenic – human activities have led to habitat loss, global warming, introduced species, and other pressures on nonhuman species populations. News headlines abound with terms like ‘biological annihilation’ and ‘apocalypse’. The scale of these crises is difficult to capture in ordinary language, driving theorists to develop a new critical vocabulary which includes terms such as ‘ecocide’, ‘petroculture’, ‘Anthropocene’, ‘Capitalocene’, and ‘Plantationcene’. New academic disciplines – such as ‘Extinction Studies’ and ‘Anthropocene Studies’ – have sprung up in response, urging us to think about how the effects of environmental degradation are experienced, narrated, and resisted across a variety of cultural forms, and asking important questions about our place in, and obligations to, a more-than-human world (Bird Rose, van Dooren, Chrulew, 2017).

We seek papers for a cluster that would examine what it means to read modernism in these troubling times. How do modernist texts help us think about nonhuman species, animal vulnerability, geological scales, and more-than-human ethics? What might be gained from reading modernist texts through the lens of present environmental concerns? Submissions are invited to consider, but are not limited to:

  • Human-animal relations; non-human ethics; multispecies encounters
  • Invasive species; living things that are seen as unwelcome or out-of-place
  • Ideas of abundance and excess (too much life)
  • Representations of endangered or extinct species
  • Animal remains; specimens; fossils
  • The language of extinction; extinction as a linguistic phenomenon
  • Representations of invisible or newly visible lives
  • Modernist forms and techniques as a means of conceptualising extinction
  • The exploitation of animals and habitats; precursors to extinction
  • Reading extinction in a local, national, transnational, or global context
  • Ideas of scale, perspective, and deep time in relation to extinction
  • Narratives of decline, degeneration, or apocalypse
  • Narratives of resistance, resilience, or recovery
  • Extinction, technology and new media
  • Teaching modernism in the sixth extinction; the pedagogy of extinction

Please send a titled, 300-word abstract and a brief biography to and by 31 January, 2020. 6 to 8 contributors will be invited to submit essays of up to 5000 words, after which the entire cluster will be sent out for peer review.


Caroline Hovanec is Assistant Professor of English and Writing at the University of Tampa. She is the author of Animal Subjects: Literature, Zoology, and British Modernism (Cambridge UP, 2018), as well as various essays on animal studies and environmental humanities.

Rachel Murray is a postdoctoral research fellow at Loughborough University. Her book, The Modernist Exoskeleton: Insects, War, Literary Form, is forthcoming with Edinburgh University Press.